Saturday, October 28, 2006

0 The Ilinden Uprising 1903

| More

The Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising or simply the Ilinden Uprising of August 1903 (Bulgarian: Илинденско-Преображенско въстание, Ilindensko-Preobrazhensko vastanie, Macedonian: Илинденско востание, Ilindensko vostanie) was an organized revolt against the Ottoman Empire prepared and carried out by the Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organisation (see IMRO for more information on the name, origins and goals of that organisation).

The uprising took place in the Bitola vilayet and the northeastern part of Adrianople vilayet — parts of the regions of Macedonia and Thrace. The rebellion in the Bitola vilayet was proclaimed on 2 August (Gregorian Calendar, which corresponds to 20 July of the Julian Calendar) 1903, St. Elias' Day, the celebration of the ascension of the Prophet Elijah to Heaven (Илинден, Ilinden in Bulgarian/Macedonian), almost two weeks ahead of schedule. The Adrianople vilayet joined the uprising on 19 August 1903, the Transfiguration (Преображение, Preobrazhenie in Bulgarian).

The rebellion in Macedonia affected most of the central and southwestern parts of the Bitola Vilayet receiving the support of the local peasant and Vlach population of the region. Provisional governments were established in three localities, all of them Vlach mountain towns or villages, viz Krushevo (near Prilep), Neveska near Florina (Lerin) and Klisura near Kastoria (Kostur). In Krushevo the insurgents proclaimed the so called Krushevo Republic under the presidency of the school teacher Nikola Karev.

The Ilinden Uprising as seen by the English daily The Times, Aug. 8, 1903The rebellion in the Adrianople vilayet led to the liberation of a vast area in the Strandzha Mountains and to the creation of a provisional government in Tsarevo (Vassiliko). Although the rebellion in both regions initially was successful, the intervention of Turkish regular army led to the dissolution of the rebels' detachments. The suppression of the uprising entailed, according to a IMARO memorandum issued in 1904, some 15,000 victims, 70,000 homeless people, over 12,000 destroyed or burnt houses and over 30,000 refugees to neighbouring countries.

By the time the rebellion had started, many of its most promising potential leaders, including Goce Delčev, had already been killed in skirmishes with the Ottomans, and the effort was quashed within a couple of months. The survivors managed to maintain a semi-successful guerilla campaign against the Turks for the next few years, but its greater effect was that it persuaded the European powers to attempt to convince the Ottoman sultan that he must take a more conciliatory note toward his Christian subjects in Europe.

This led to the Murzsteg Program, by which the various powers appointed observers in Macedonia. Though little came of this, it was a motivating factor in the ensuing Balkan Wars, which split up Macedonia between a northern area under Serbian (and later Yugoslav) control, a southern area under Greece and a small northeastern one under Bulgaria.

0 коментара:

Post a Comment

28.03.2006-2009 © Copyright by HISTORY OF MACEDONIA, ИСТОРИЯ НА МАКЕДОНИЯ, MACEDONIA HISTORY  |  Template by Blogspot tutorial