Friday, June 27, 2008

2 The Macedonian Question. Overview of the Bulgarian historiography

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... О, unreasonable peoplе Why are you
ashamed to call yourself Bulgarian ...?
The Macedonian question

(Overview of the Bulgarian historiography)

Edit by: The Institute of History at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, S., 1968 y.

Thanks to V. Bogoeva

The antique history of Macedonia

In the ancient times, the territory of Macedonia (Makedonia, Makedonija) was a part of the slavery Greak-Ilirian country of Philip and Alexander of Macedon. From II century BC till IV century AD, the Balkan peninsula, including Macedonia was under the governement of the Rome Empire. From the end of IV century till the beginning of VI century, Misia (the Danube Bulgaria), Тhracia and Маcedonia were provinces of the East-Rome empire, called the Byzantium. In the VI century, during several decades, the Slavonic tribes conquered large regions of Byzantium. At the end of VI century and at the beginning of VII century, the eastern and western group of these Slavonic tribes finally settled on the Balkans. The eastern group (known in the science as the Bulgarian one) took the contemporary Roman lands and the eastern part of the Balkan peninsula – Moesia (with Dobrudga), “Moravsko” (with Timok region), Thracia (with the Rhodopes), Macedonia, contemporary Albania, Epirus, and some neighbouring regions of contemporary Greece, and the other, serbo-croatian group — took the western part. The Slavs became the most popular, the most compact populations on the Balkans, for which in the VII century, Macedonia, which became in the center of the Slavonic lands of the peninsula,was famous under the name of Slavinia.

The Middle Aged history of Macedonia

During the second half of the VII century in Мisia (Moesia), the Asparouh proto-Bulgarians finally settled, while the Cuber`s proto-Bulgarians (Cuber is a brother of Asparouh) settled in Macedonia — in the region of Bitola (Bitolia, Monastir) — Solun.

In the battle against the Byzantium Empire, the formed, previously Slavic union was united with the Аsparouh`s proto-Bulgarians. It was the beginning of the Bulgarian state, founded and leaded by Аsparouh. The foundation of the Bulgarian country was in 681 year.

This country became an attractive center of the Eastern group of the Slavonic tribes. Its boundaries included 3 basic regions: Misia, Thracia and Macedonia and it was during its existence till the fall under ottoman slavery. During the IX - X сenturies, after the foundation of the Bulgarian country, started the process of formation of the Bulgarian nationality. Later, in XI - XII centuries, other tribal groups were assimilated into Bulgarian nationality, as: Pechenegs, Gagauzs, Koumanians. Some historical scientists from Skopie (Skopje, Uskube) tried to prove that Macedonian state existed when king (tsar, tzar) Samuil (Samuel) governed and they thought he was a tsar of this state. But that was not the historical truth. The country of Samuil (reigned in 969 year) continued the Bulgarian tradition and this state appeared to be an organized support of the Bulgarian people against the conquering politics of Byzantium.

The historical merit of king Samuil was of that, he leaded unceasing heroical battles to defend the existence of the Bulgarian country, of the Bulgarian people and culture during almost half a century.

In 972, when the Byzantium emperor John I Tzimisces conqured Preslav and subdued the eastern boundaries of the Bulgarian country, Samuil managed to move its center in the south western Bulgarian lands (first in Sofia, then in Maglen, Prespa and Оhrid) and to strengthen his position as a recognized Bulgarian ruler. In 976, Samuil took the field of battle toward the north-eastern Bulgaria and he liberated this land from the Byzantine domination and restored the unity of the Bulgarian country. According to Byzantine sources, Samuil accepted the son of tsar Peter, Roman, who escaped from Byzantium. For his special merits in the battle against Byzantium, as well as for his protection of the Bulgarian country, Samuil was chosen as a ruler (arhon) of Bulgaria, by the boyars, and later, after the death of Roman, he became a tsar of the Bulgarians. Samuil leaded many battles for protection of the Bulgarian lands (together with the population from Misia and Dobrudga) which was in his country. Samuil waged wars against Byzantines. It is also known that, the Byzantium emperor Emperor Basil II (was called “Macedonian” for the place of his birth). He defeatd Samuil`s army, he was called “a killer of Bulgarians”, but not “a killer of Macedonians”. The Samuil’s country strictly followed the Bulgarian tradition, clearly proved by the fact that the Bulgarian patriarch moved his head office together with the capital of the country (namely in Sofia, Prespa, Ohrid).

It has to be underlined that in all historical sources the country of Samuil is a Bulgarian country.
Of great significance and as an indisputable source for the national Bulgarian image of the country of Samuil had left us John (Ivan) Vladislav (1015—1018 г.). He was Samuil’s inheritor and the last tsar of the First Bulgarian kingdom.

He had left us an epigraphic slabstone with an Old-Bulgarian inscription, found in Bitola in 1958.
In this document (important for the historical science) John Vladislav told that he was “a son of Aron” (the brother of Samuil) and a “Bulgarian king (tsar)”, and that he was “born Bulgarian” and his nationals are Bulgarians, as well.

What is interesting is that the Serbian scientist Stoyan Novakovich (a specialist of the Mediaeval Serbian history, professor of history) characterized the country of tsar Samuil as Bulgarian, mentioning that

the capital of the Bulgarian country was Ohrid".

„The establishment of the Bulgarian country in Ohrid as well as the strengthening of the Bulgarian kingdom by the great heroic deeds of Samuil — wrote Novakovich — extended the Bulgarian country toward the Adriatic beach, more strongly than before".

Later, this scientist Novakovich became unloyal toward the historical truth for the Samuil’s country and became an ancestor of the so called “macedonism”, proclaiming that Bulgarians in Macedonia were different from the Bulgarian people. Of course that was not true.
In the history of Bulgarian country there were cases when together with the central authority, there were regions, realms and principalities, that were independently, having its own authority.

At the Middle Ages the central domination became more and more weaker which became the reason of growing the boyars’ separatism at the time of the Turkish invasions. Together with the kingdom of John (Ivan) Shishman in Veliko Turnovo, there were founded: the Bulgaian kingdom in Vidin, leaded by John (Ivan) Stratsimir and Dobrudga Bulgarian kingdom, leaded by Dobrotitsa.

But the historical science did not conclude that there was a nationality of Vidin оr Dobrudga, because there was not such a nationality.
There were no reasons to think about a separate “Macedonian” nationality at the time of Samuil. Then the Bulgarian country was united, but not feudal frаgmented.
After falling of the Bulgarian country under the Byzantium yoke, Bulgarians from all the regions, including, Macedonia tried to liberate themselves.

And here, the historical sources told us about the Bulgaarian character of the uprisings.
The first Bulgarian uprising was led by Peter ІІ Delyan (son of emperor Gavril Radomir and Samuil’s grandson) in 1040—1041, while the second one was led by George (Georgi) Voiteh in 1072 year, this uprising had a center in Macedonia.

In XI century, the Byzantium chronicler Scylitzes, underlined that “the Bulgarians “rised in rebellions”, that the leader is Bulgarian, who stimulated “Bulgarian tribe to rise rebellions”.
The chronicler told us that the second rebellion was organized by the Bulgarian nobles in Scopie and that the leader Georgi Voiteh was from the family of kavkhans. The word “kavkhan” indicated a protoBulgarian noble official title.

In 1217, the despot Theodor Komnin-Duka conquered the towns of Оhrid, Prilep and Skopie and brought the Bulgarian archbishopric of Ohrid under the sway of the patriarchate in Costantinople.
In 1240-1246, two decades after that, almost all Macedonian lands were included in the regions of the Bulgarian country till 1282, when the Serbian king King Stefan Uroš II Milutin Nemanjic managed to conquer the northern Macedonia. This was the reason to add to his title “a king of Bulgaria.” In 1346 г. The Serbian king Stefan Uroš IV- “Dušan Silni” ("the Mighty") conquered for a short time the larger part of Маcedonia, for which he became to be titled

a king of the Bulgarians".

In 1371, almost two decades after that, near the river of Maritza was put the completion of the last independent Christian countries on the Balkans. In the next decades the Macedonian lands were definetely conqured by the Ottoman empire.

History of Macedonia, ХІV-ХІХ centuries

During Ottoman yoke (that lasted almost 5 centuries), Macedonia often became an arena of military conflicts, which reflected on the demographic, ethnical and religious composition of the population.

For example, in 1495, it was conducted forced Islamic politics of part of the population, which repeated in different intensity during the next 2 centuries.
Three centuries later, in 1740, because of the unsuccessful termination of the serial Austro-Hungarian war against the Ottoman empire, a major part of masses of Christian population from northern Маcedonia migrated to north, as on this land, the Porte settled Muslem Albanians.
On the contrary, a major part of the native population kept its Bulgarian ethnical and language image. This was shown by many documents from that epoch.
In almost all the travel notes of the shopkeepers from Dubrovnik, some west-european messengers to the Sultan and etc., when they described the inhabited lands of Macedonia, which they crossed, it was mentioned about Bulgarians, Bulgarian village and Bulgarian town.

In numerous documents of church founders, kept in the Aton monastries, there were met hundreds of names and people of different parts of Маcedonia, who told that their origin was from Prilep “in Bulgaria”, from Veles “in Bulgaria”, from Skopie “in Bulgaria”, from Nevrokop “in Bulgaria” and etc..
On the seal of he Albanian leader against the Ottoman conquest in ХV century – George (Georgi) Kastrioti-Skenderbeg, who governed a small part of Debar was writen that he was a tsar of the Bulgarians having in mind the nationality of the population in the mentiondd Macedonian district.

As a result of development of the commodity-financially relations as well as the appearance of the first beginnings of the native bourgeoisie among a definite part of the Macedonian population began appreciate the education and the ideas of the Enlightenment.
This was the reason to appear printers, authors of primers, readers and other useful for this time books. In 1762, Paisiy Hilendarski (who was from Pirin Macedonia) wrote “History Slavonic Bulgarian”, where on the pages he exclaimed:

“... О, unreasonable peoplе, Why are you ashamed to call yourself Bulgarian... ?”.

In 1770 in Bitola, was published a dictionary comprising 4 languages: Bulgarian, Vlah, Greek and Albanian, whose author is the priest Danail from Moskopole (Voskopia, Moshopole), today’s eastern Albania.

Two decades later, in 1792 in Vienna was published the primer of Marko Theodorovitch, who determines his own status as “Bulgarian born in Razlog”. Аnd Razlog is a town in Pirin Macedonia.

In 1814 in Budapest began publishing the works of Yoakim Kurchovsky (from Kicevo region), which were written on “ordinary Bulgarian language”.

Again, in Budapest, in 1816 г. Kiril Peichinovich (from Tetovo region), published his greatest work “Mirror”. In his book he told us, that his work was written in “simple Bulgarian language from Lower Misia”, that is from Macedonia.

17 years later, in Macedonia appeared the first organized demonstrations against the Greek bishops and the Instanbul Patriarchate. In 1833 г. in Skopie many christians got together and claimed the Patriarchate for appointing a bishop of the “Bulgarian nationality”.

At the same time, in the battles of the “Greek liberation movement” against the Ottoman domination participated many Bulgarians from the southern regions of Aegean Macedonia.
Marko Bochvar is among the participants, according the documents of the Greek rebellion he was a Bulgarian by nationality. In his paper, published in 1852 in the Bulgarian newspaper in Tzarigrad Yordan Hadzikonstantinov (Dzinot), born in Veles, a bookman and educationalist wrote: „If someone asked me whether am I Bulgarian? I shall tell him: I am Bulgarian! Bulgarian loves to do good ... Bulgarian has never been ashamed of his origin and language..."

Among the many bright names of the tribal patriots, born in the towns and villages of Маcedonia, with particularly respect are the names of: Neofit Rilski, Kuzman Shapkarev, Josif Kovachev, Natanail Ohridski, Raiko Zhinzifov and the brothers Dimitar and Konstantinovi from Struga.
They struggled ardently in defence of their people, for the Bulgarian revival and in this struggle they died in the dungeon in Constantinople.

The two brothers worked for realization of the Bulgarian national revival ideal – independent Bulgarian church, Bulgarian schools, tuition on their own Bulgarian language, for awakening of the national consciousness between the wide masses of our Bulgarian people. In 1861 they published a literary collection “Bulgarian national songs”. These songs are the best specimens of Bulgarian folklore.
In his invitation (necessary to attract subscribers, published in the same year), K. Miladinov wrote: “6 years ago, we start gathering the songs from the Western Bulgaria, i. e. Macedonia, for example from Ohrid, Struga, Prilep, Veles, Kostur, Kukush, Strumitsa and other places, as well as form the Eastern Bulgaria. The high spirits of Miladinov brothers were shown by Dimitur Miladinov`s letter, which was sent in 1852 to the editor of “Tsarigradski vestnik” (”The magazine of Constantinople”) – Alexander Ekzarch. In his letter he mentioned about the risk of spreading of the Greek language in Macedonia, and he showed the necessity for the children to study their native Bulgarian language.

In this letter he wrote: “Some Macedonian lands, inhibited by unilingual Bulgarians were studied Hellenic Alphabet, and they were called Hellenes by Hellenes...”
When he was arrested, D. Miladinov said:

“…I went to death, but the Bulgarian people, which I love, and for which I will die, it will not die together with me.”

It will be after my death and one day it will resurrect in majesticity.” Only few days, after he understood about the death of the brothers Miladinov, the famous Bulgarian patriot Любен Karavelov wrote: “Thousands of years will pass, but their names will be pronounced with goodwill in the Bulgarian songs, in the Bulgarian tales, and in the working bees”.

And the national poet Ivan Vazov praised enthusiastically their feát: “And the poor brothers in their dying sufferings leave their last moanings. And took by their deadlike coolness, they sent last farewell to the God`s World and whispered quietly with fading power: “How`much we love it our dear Bulgaria!"

Another figure of our national movement of liberation — Gligor Purlichev from Ohrid, author of the poems „Armatalos" („The Serdar") и „Skenderbei" (Skenderbeg), wrote:
“We, Bulgarians were so much abused and despicable from many nationalities, that is why it is time to come to our senses…”

It is time to show ourselves as people between the people. That diligence which Bulgarians have could be rarely found in the other peoples, it ennobled us…”
The outstanding writer of the Bulgarian national revival, Raiko Zhinzifov from Veles showed that Bulgarians inhibited Northern Bulgaria, Thracia and Macedonia.

In the paper “for the translation of “The speech for the regiment Igorov” Zhinzifov found for necessary to mark:

“That language, which is spoken over the whole part of Macedonia, Thracia and Bulgaria is Bulgarian. There are not separate nations as Macedonia and Thracia, because there are Bulgarians, there is one people Bulgarian, and one language Bulgarian.”

In his poem “Rebec-player in fair“ Raiko Zhinzifiv said: “Macedonia, wonderful country, it will never be Greek country!”

Foliage leaves and forest, and mountain, the stones of this country. Bird and fish in Vardar river, alive and dead will stand and will answer to the whole world:

"I am Bulgarian. Bulgarians live in this country!”

It was necessary to show another important source of knowledge, which showed that during our Revival and the movement of liberation in Macedonia was formed Bulgarian national conscioussnes and the national battle of liberation was developed. And it was against the ottoman slavery, and against the Hellenization of the Bulgarian population.
This source is related to the name of the Serbian scientist Stephan (Stefan)Verkovich.
In 1850, the Serbian government sent St. Verkovich in Macedonia with a definite scientific and political mission. At first, he was very active, he gave away Serbian textbooks and books, agitated for Serbia. But meeting the compact Bulgarian mass in Macedonia, he soon understood, that he was not on a right way, that in Macedonia there was not a place neither for Serbian, nor for Greek propaganda, and he gave himself to work for Bulgarians, he advised them to open their national schools, to study Bulgarian language.

Thus, Verkovich became one of the devoted figures of the Bulgarian Revival. He published some books among which is a collection under a heading: “National songs of the Macedonian Bulgarians” — 1860, printed in the King Serbian printing office in Belgrad.
In 1868 in Moscow was published his book “Description of the life of the Bulgarian population in Macedonia.”

The revival of the movement of liberation and the organization of the Bulgarian national revolution movement, comprising Misia, Thracia and Macedonia, are another bright provement for that, in the last years, before the liberation of Bulgaria from ottoman slavery, there was not neither a separate Macedonian nation, but it was formed one united Bulgarian nationality.

In 1842, as a student in Athens, George Rakovski created “Macedonian society”, aiming to organize an uprising in the Bulgarian lands against the ottoman slavery simultaneously with the preparing in this time Greek uprising of Krit island and in Tesalia.
Later, in 1853, one of his chums – Pavel Gramadov, tried to organize an uprising in Macedonia.
In his revolutionary activity, in the battle for the liberation of the Bulgarian people, Rakovski kept up friendship with figures of the Bulgarian national movement of liberation in Macedonia: Konstantin Miladinov, Raiko Zhizifov, Kiriak and Georgi Durzhilovec from Solun, Georgi Ikonomov from Veles, Gogo Popaiani from Voden, Nako Stanishev and Hristo Pavlov from Kukush, Konstantin Tashov from Strumitsa, Kuzman Shapkarev from Оhrid and others.
In the plans for uprisings, which Rakovski composed in 1885, were foreseen armed actions in Macedonia.

In the Bulgarian legion, created by him, many Bulgarians from Macedonia participated, among which were Ilyo Markov (grandfather Ilyo) from Berovo (Malesh region), who alone leaded his armed group.

A leader of an armed group was Christo H. Makedonski from v. Gorni Todorak (Kukush region), George (Georgi, Georgija) Pulevski from Debar region etc. The revolutionary activity of Rakovski found wide reaction in all Bulgarian lands, including Macedonia.

“We thank God as we understood about the flames, which you carry in your souls for our people and for our father`s language- the teacher Yoakim Malenkov wrote to Rakovski, on 3 April, 1861 in Оhrid….─ We wrote your name in the church in order to mention it for ever.”

In many towns and villages in Macedonia arised secret revolutionary committees. In Ohrid acted a revolutionary group of 14 men, leaded by Ivan Paunchev.

Spiro Dzerov from Bitola — an outstanding rebel of Hadzi Dimitar and Stefan Karadza, created a revolutionary group (in this town and in many`villages of Bitola district, as well as in the neighbouring Resen, Оhrid and Lerin districts. These groups existed in Krushevo, Shtip, Kukush, Prilep, Gorna Dzumaya (Blagoevgrad) and others.

Bulgarians in Macedonia take part in the battle for creating of an independent Bulgarian church.
However, when establishing the exarchate, only the Veles eparchy was included in the founded Bulgarian church.
But according article10 from the Firman for creation of the Exarchate in many eparchies were conducted plebiscites, according to which the majority of the population expressed their opinion for joining to the Exarchate.

Im May 1878 a rebellion burst out in v. Razlovtsi, region of Malesh— in the region of upstream of river Bregalnitsa, known in the history as Razlog region, or Pianech uprising.
This rebellion is a well-deserved episode and a final of the April epopee of the Bulgarian people, and his organizers Dimitar Popgeorgiev, priest Stoyan Razlogki, Ilyo Markov and others are outstanding figures of the Bulgarian national movement of liberation.
In the Bulgarian volunteer force in 1877— 1878 there were more than 500 Bulgarians from the different districts of Macedonia.

After the suppression of the uprising in the region of the Maleshevo mountain, Dimitar Popgeorgiev, as well as the other leaders of this rebellion went to Belasitsa and most of them stayed to act till to Russo- Turkish war, as they performed acts of diversions in the rear of the turkeys.
Well-known is the action of grandfather Ilyo Markov for establishing of local authority in the Maleshevo mountain and Pianec region.

The Insanbul conference (which was in session in December 1876) was attended by the ambassadors of Russia, England, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
Here, earl Ignatiev proposed a draft for creating of Bulgarian autonomous state from all Bulgarian lands — Misia, Dobrudga, Тhracia, Маcedonia and Bulgarian Pomoravie.
No one did not contest that in these regions live Bulgarians.
The French delegate presented a collective document for giving an autonomy of Bulgaria, but at definite political considerations – without Adrianople and the region of Eagean sea, the Bulgarian lands were formed into two districts with centers Тurnovo and Sofia.

The English representatives outlined the borders of the Bulgarian ethnic society community which had a completely majority in the territory: on the north — from downstream of river Timok till the outfall of Danube (from Vidin to Tulcha), on the east — Black sea, on the south — the line Lozengrad—Bansko— Petrich—Strumica—Kostur (Kastoria), on the west — the line Оhrid—Tetovo—Vranje—Leskovec— Niš, as all mentioned towns stayed inside Bulgaria.
As a result of Russo-Turkish war, Bulgaria was liberated from ottoman yoke, аnd its borders determined by the Treaty of San Stefano according the ethnic principle, grounded in the adoption of the resolution on the Instanbul conference.

The treaty of San Stefano outlined the borders of the newly established Bulgarian state, in which was included Aegean Маcedonia. This was not of interest to the great Western European countries on this time — England, Аustria-Hungary and Germany.

The western capitalist countries did not agree with the creating of one great Bulgarian country. Тhey were afraid of Bulgaria to fall under the influence of Russia, to become its ally and to promote the Russian influence in the center of the Balcans, near Bosphorus and Dardanelles. England, Germany and Аustria-Hungary did not participate in the Russo-Turkish war, but because of that, they were stronger, rejected the treaty of San Stefano, dictated the conditions of the famous treaty of Berlin and successfully conducted their directive — „divide and rule".
Bulgaria was parcelled out, as the whole Маcedonia and Lozengrad were deprived from it and left under Turkish slavery.

The territory of Montenegro was considerably decreased, determined by the treaty of San Stefano. Bosnia and Herzegovina were occupied from Аustria-Hungary. Serbia and Roumania, which by the treaty of San Stefano extended with Bulgarian lands, according to the treaty of Berlin received new Bulgarian territories — a part from Moravsko and Middle Dobrudga.

The Berlin dictate is one of the most-unjusted and reactionary international contracts. He was censured by many scientists and administrative figures in different European countries. French historians Ernest Lavisse and Alfred Rambo evaluated the Berlin treaty as „a monument of the egoism, act of the envy, of the personal relations, immoral and mean action, and instead of ensuring peace, it created many reasons for conflicts and wars in the future".

The famous Serbian radical-socialist Vasa Pelagich wrote:

According to the Treaty of San Stefano the whole Bulgaria was united in one country and it comprised the lands of Danube to Solun and from Black Sea to Оhrid ... Such Bulgarian country was not approved by the gentlemen ambassadors."

Later, the inspirers of the Berlin treaty: the German statesman Bismark and the British statesman Bikonsfiild acknowledged that, the national unity of Bulgaria was impaired in Berlin.

Later on, for this treaty in “The British encyclopedia" (edition from 1911) was written: „The Berlin treaty, with its artificial separation of the Bulgarian race, created a difficult and tangled „Macedonian problem".

This treaty provoked big discontent among the Bulgarian population in Macedonia.
Before the session of the Berlin treaty, the Great Powers spread a rumour, that the Macedonian population wanted to stay under Turkish domination. The Great Powers were interested to spread such rumours. In responding to these intrigues of the Turkish authorities and Phanariot (Greek) clergy, Bulgarian communities in Macedonia shouted their protest.

They sent an appeal to the great authorities on 20 May 1878, in which was written: “All Bulgarian people rejoiced, when the desires of Bulgarians were fulfilled and their needs were satisfied, and we Bulgarians in Macedonia with the validity of the treaty of San Stefano, we awaited impatiently the liberation from the Turkish slavery.

But, instead of this, we see that the local authorities from one side, and the Greek clergy, from the other side, blackmailed with different ways and means from some of our innocent brothers signs in order to abuse them as to try to convice the Great guaranteed authorities, as if we were Greek and desired better status quo, but not joining to the newly established Bulgarian principality.

This mocking with our signs, i.e. with our Bulgarian name and feeling, has deeply distressed all of us, particularly with the supposion, that such a false statement by the side of Macedonian Bulgarians, could be passed to Your High Excellency."
When protesting against this lie, they insisted to send a commission, which to assure on the same place that their desires and needs are general with these of their “brothers Bulgarians, who inhibit Misia and Thracia.”

The appeal, on 20 May 1878, was signed by „Macedonian Bulgarians — representatives from different communities from Macedonia", supported by the signes of the communities and other Bulgarian organizations. The signs and seals under the appeal represented almost all the districts of Macedonia: Veles, Strumica, Skopie, Bitolia, Prilep, Negotino, Gevgeli, Kukush, Solun, Tetovo, Kumanovo, Radovish, Voden, Petrich, Nevrokop (Gotse Delchev), Demirhisar (Valovishte), Shtip, Ser, Drama...

In this way, for less than 10 years, Bulgarian people for the second time (the first time at the foundation of the Bulgarian exarchate) outlined its southwestern ethnic borders and for two times large international acts, as drafts of the Tzarigrad conference and the peaceful treaty of San Stefano, acknowledged the existence of the Bulgarian nationality on the territory of Macedonia, without accounting the opinions of the outstanding scientists (geographers, ethnographs, historians), travellers, publicists, and others, as well as the ethnographic maps of Shafarik, Ami Buye, H. Kiepert, Legean, McKenzy, Urby and others.
Here, we have to mark that, up to now, as well as some decades later till the years of the Second world war, all the neighbours of Macedonian Bulgarians — Albanians, Greeek, Serbs, as well as Macedonian Turks, allaches, and gipsies, who lived there were called Bulgarians, and their language was called Bulgarian.

As a sign of resistance against the resolution of the Berlin congress in Macedonia was the Kresna-Razlog uprising in autumn, in 1878. As a sign of protest, the population from the whole Melnik district, from Razlog, from Kresna’s valley till Demirhissar was called to armed battle.
The whole documentation of Kresna-Razlog uprising showed the Bulgarian character of the uprising and the population of Macedonia.
Immediately after the Berlin treaty and the detaching of Маcedonia from Bulgarian state the peasants from Melnik region wrote an opened letter to the the Petrich police chief:

„We, do not leave the weapon, before we unite with the principality Bulgaria — our homeland, our mother".

Particularly enormous was the grief and dissatisfaction in these regions, which were occupied by the Russian armies and according to the treaty, it has to be given to the Turkey, again.
The Turks revenged cruelly to the peaceful population on their return home. Such was the case with Gornodjumaisko (Blagoevgrad destrict). All Bulgarians, who were in danger run away in the principality Bulgaria in the liberated part of their homeland.
The Bulgarians from Маcedonia and Adrianopol Тhracia, who remained under the domination of the sultan Abdul Hamid, were subjected to more terrible national political oppression, because according to the Turkish authorities, they became culprits for the inauspicious Turkish war.
At the created situation, all the economic, political and ideological prerequisites existed for development of new revolutionary movement in nonliberated Bulgarian territories in Macedonia and Thracia.

The economic situation of the population progressively made worse. It aggravated with the political absence of rights, from the robberies of professional bandits and oppressors.

The people saw the evil particularly in the sultan authority, which supported the ruling system of exploitation, robbery, absence of rights and violence. In these conditions was born the idea to create an organization, which to lead the battle for the liberation of Macedonia and Adrianople. In 1893 was created such an organization, as an organization of the Bulgarian population in Маcedonia and Adrianople Thracia. This was seen by her name — Bulgarian Macedonian-adrianople revolutionary committees (BМОRK), renamed three years later in a Secret Macedonian-adrianople revolutionary organization (SМОRО), аnd after 1905 — Inner Macedonian-adrianople revolutionary organization (IМОRО).

History of Macedonia 1893-1918

This organization inhibited rich experience of the Bulgarian national movement of liberation before the Russo-Turkish war and it applied the structure and the programme of the Bulgarian revolutionary central committee in Bukurest.

At the head of the organization standed Damyan Gruev, d-r Hristo Tatarchev, Ivan Hadjinikolov, Petar Poparsov, Gotse Delchev, Gjorche Petrov, Jane Sandanski, Todor Alexandrov, Ivan Mihailov and others. Hristo Tatarchev (the first chairman of CC of IMORO) told the following (about the disputes around the programme and the tactics of the organization): “It is under debate the aim of this organization and then we stopped upon the autonomy of Macedonia with priority of the Bulgarian element.

We could not perceive the viewpoint “direct association of Macedonia with Bulgaria“, because we saw that this would have great difficulties because of the opposition of the great authorities and aspirations of the neighbouring small states, as well as the viewpoint of Turkey.”
” It came upon our mind that one autonomous Macedonia afterwards it could be joined easily.”
It could not be marked that, the leaders of Macedono - Adrianople revolutionary movement were people with clear defined Bulgarian national consciousness.
The most outstanding figure between them — Gotse Delchev — considered himself and his friends for Bulgarians.

At the beginning of 1901, when the terror of the sultan authorities increased, Gotse Delchev и Gyorche Petrov prepared and sent district-messages to the leading groups of VМОRО, in which they showed that, the „Turkish authorities" had an aim „to catch all smarter and more courageous Bulgarians, for which it could be allowed that, they could incite and lead the people" and to make „impossible each civic activity of Bulgarian".
Gotse Delchev and Damyan Gruev were teachers in Bulgarian schools in Macedonia.
Gotse Delchev was expelled from the Military school. On his return to enslaved Маcеdonia, Delchev devoted himself to revolutionary activity.

“Our slavery situation in Macedonia determines clearly what is necessary — that, which is
undertaken by all the suppresssed. That was undertaken by Levski”─ told Delchev.
At the same time, he underlined that: “Bulgarians in Macedonia bring almost alone the load of the revolution.”
And they are necessary, for to continue our battle, until we reach the last aim.”

Vain were all attempts in Yugoslavia to present Gotse Delchev —as he was not Bulgarian, to deny, that he was a son of the Bulgarian people. IМОRО prepared and realized the Ilinden -Preobrazhenie uprising from 1903.
During the uprising was created the republic of Krushevo, by Nikola Karev, and it was of this type for which Levski and Botev desired.

For the Bulgarian character of Ilinden-Preobrazenie uprising told us its outstanding figures. This was seen by many documents, remaining from that time.
In one of them, the general staff of the uprising, leaded by Damyan Gruev appealed to the Bulgarian government for help, in which it was said: „As we were in front of the national movement, we appeal to you on behalf of the ordinary Bulgarian, to help him effectively.”
In this letter, as well as in the other documents of the uprising and in the press of IМОRО was used Bulgarian literary language. IМОRО leaded heroic battle for liberation of Маcedonia and Adrianople from ottoman slavery.

After the young Turkish coup d'etat in 1908, the left wing in IМОRО, leaded by Yane Sandanski created „National Federative party — Bulgarian section", with a center Solun.

This organization, as it was mentioned in its documents, defended “the interests of this part of the Bulgarian population, which constitute its majority and the major elements of this party — lacking from state cares owners, landless and indigent landowners, farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen.“
The Macedonian and Thracian revolutionaries have never fighted for creating of another national consciousness other than Bulgarian consciousness.

These revolutionaries have never been disposed antiBulgarian.
They all felt themselves Bulgarians, they have clear Bulgarian consciousness and often underlined that Bulgarians, particularly in Macedonia are the most compact mass.
It is not by accident that Yane Sandanski announced in front of the constituent cogress of the National-Federative party in Solun in defence of the Bulgarian population and of the Bulgarian Exarchate:

„If the Bulgarians in Macedonia are not satisfied, I will defend the Exarchate by arms in hand".

Macedonian revolutionaries raised the slogan for autonomy: “Macedonia for the Macedonians”, but not for that, as if a separate national Macedonian community existed, but they raised it as a slogan for a fight of the whole population for liberation from ottoman yoke.
Let we add the data of the official Turkish statistics for the image of Macedonia at a national symptom, confirmed by the studies of the great expert of Macedonia Vassil Kunchov.
According to these data, in 1900, in Macedonia, in its geographical borders were: Bulgarians — 1 181 336, Turks 499 204, Greek 228 702, Albanians 128 711, Wallaches-cincars 80 767, Jews 67 840, Gypsies 54557 and others–17 107 (among them are 700 Serbs). Total: 2 258 224. As it was seen by the data of the most reliable statistics, it was not talked for Macedonian at all in the regions of Macedonia.

The major mass of the population is called Bulgarians, who are about 52% of the populatоn.
For the Bulgarian population in Macedonia, it was clearly and unequivocally described by all the competent foreign statistics, which take Macedonia, as well in its geographical borders.

It is that, according to the Russian statistics of prince (graf) Cherkaski from 1877 y. According to it Bulgarians in the mentioned borders of Маcedonia are about 55 %, according to the Serbian statistics of Stefan Verkovich from 1889 — approximately 68 %, according to the French statistics of Gaston Rutier from 1904 y. — about 53 %, according to German statistics of E. von Mah from 1906 г. — over 60 % and etc. And IМОRО bring out data from 1905 for a bigger percentage of Bulgarians in Маcеdonia — approximately 56 %. However, in the geographic borders of Маcеdonia are included districts, which have been inhibited mainly by Greek population.
If they dot take in account, but if we take in account the borders of Маcеdоnia (in approximation), that was included in the composition of San Stafano-Bulgaria, and upon which territory was built IМОRО, then according to Kunchov`s statistics Bulgarians are about 60 %, Turkish — about 22 %.
The rest 18 % are Albanians, Wallaches, Greek, Jews, Gypsies and others, put together. Almost such was the correlation between Bulgarian and the rest population in Misia and Thracia (Eastern Rumelia and Adrianopol Тhracia) at the time of liberation of Bulgaria from ottoman yoke, in 1878 y.

In the Turkish statistics are given the data of the Bulgarian schools, as well, for the Bulgarian teachers, for Bulgarians churches.
The number of the primary and junior high schools in Macedonia (in 1900) were 1132, they had 63 774 pupils and 1776 teachers.
The secondary Bulgarian schools were 9, with 1700 students and 108 teachers. Bulgarian churches and chapels were 1294, with 1132 Bulgarian priests.

And what does the statistics reveal us for the next period?

The official Turkish statistics and the data of prof. Yordan Yordanov show that, by the time of the Balcan wars (1912—1913 г.) Bulgarians in Macedonia were about the half of the population, in spite of emigrations in Bulgaria after the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising.
If we take into consideration Bulgarian, Serbian and Greek statistics for the population in Macedonia, in the report of the famous international Carnegie commission inquiry after the Balcan wars was written:

Only the Bulgarian statistics take into account for the national consciousness of the population.”

The Serbian calculations, usually are founded on the results of dialectology and its usually unity: many of them are theoretical and abstract. The Greek calculations are still more artificial, because for ethnic delimitation, they take the influence, exercised by the Greek culture against the towns population, and the experiences and traces of the classic antiquity ".

The French representative in Turkey in the period from the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising to the Balkan wars, colonel Leon Lamush, reported that, in 1912 in Маcеdоnia existed 1141 Bulgarian schools with 884 teachers and 65 474 students , without including the Bulgarian catholic schools in Bitolia, Kukush (Kilkis), Solun and the protestant schools.
At the same time, the exarchic clergy consists of 7 bishops, 7 episcopal (of a bishop) vicars and 1132 priests who served 1273 churches and chapels.
In the Balcan war 1912—1913 г. near 15 000 Bulgarians, born in Macedonia and Adrianople, were volunteers in Macedonian- Adrianople volunteers force and in the regularly Bulgarian army.

In the inner part of these two districts, there were acting many groups, leaded by outstanding figures of IMORO.

After the Interallied war (1913) six seventy from the territory of Macedonia with majority of the Bulgarian population were occupied by Serbia and Greece. Instead of resolution of the Macedonian problem its complication was obtained. Bulgarians in Macedonia fell under new national slavery. This was described by the fact, that during the First world war Bulgarian Army was met by this population as real and desired liberator, while Bulgarians from Vardar Маcedonia (forced mobilized by Serbian Army) deserted and enrolled in the Bulgarian Army.
As it was known, only in the first 3 years of the Serbian domination in Macedonia were killed, hunged and disappeared several thousands of Bulgarians and Albanians.
The names of some of these people were published in 1917 by the son of the writer of the Bulgarian national revival Grigor Purlichev – Kiril Purlichev, in his book „Serbian regime and the revolutionary battle in Macedonia (1912—1915 г.)".

The international Carnegie commission inquiry in those years showed numerous facts, as well of cruel outrages — mass killings, and expellings of Bulgarians from Vardar and Aegean Маcedonia from king Serbian and Greek authorities.
Here, we would like to mark that, in the report of Carnegie commission, it was clearly and categorically written about Bulgarian population and Bulgarians, but not for separate Macedonian population.
After the First world war Vardar and Aegean Маcedonia again were joined to Serbian - Croatian-Slovenian кingdom (Yugoslavia) and Greece.
The Serbian and Greek bourgeoisie, its government conducted course of assimilation of the Bulgarian population.
In these parts of Macedonia everything was forbidden.

Every day, at school, the students began their classes with the words: “I am Serbian.”(“I am real Serbian”).

The Third party conference of UCP, held in January 1924, noted: „... The Serbian bourgeoisie determined in Macedonia cruel terrorist regime, destroy or force to emigration the conscious part of the Bulgarian, Turkish and Albanian population, and on their lands it bring settlers from other districts of Yugoslavia. It depressed all non Serbian nationalities, close their churches and schools, forbided their press and pursued their language. At every act of indignation and protest of the brought to despair population, the Serbian authorities responded with blood repressions. "Bulgarian nationality of the majority of the population in Vardar Маcedonia was shown in the Great Soviet encyclopedia from 1931.
In the paper „Yugoslavia" was written: „The southern suburbs of the country — Мacedonia, is inhibited by Bulgarians... The Serbian bourgeois science deny or conceal about the Bulgarian nationality of the population, but the wide masses clearly enough awared their Bulgarian nationality".
Unscientific and falsed thesis of the “great” Serbian chauvinists for the nationality of the Bulgarians in Macedonia was denounced in the report of the mentioned Carnegie commission. Estimating the Serbian „ethnographic maps” of Macedonia from Jovan Cvijic, there was written: „...ethnographic terms of Mr. Cvijic are changed by the development of the Serbian political pretentions". It is known by the history that, some of these pretentions were at the liberation of Bulgaria, others — according the map of Cvijic from 1907, third (greater) — according to his map from 1913 and still bigger, according to his map from1918. When the Serbian state saw that it could not achieve serious results in its Serbian politics against the Bulgarian national masses, applying forced methods, it invented other ways for denationalization, which particularly earlier it was tried.

To give proof of this assimilation politics, many Serbian historians began to tell that, this population was not Bulgarian, Serbian, but Macedonian. At the fifth conference of UCP (October 1940) was accepted a document „UCP and the Macedonian national question". In this letter it was written: „There is no doubt that, Macedonians are a separate nation of the Balcans not Greek, not Bulgarians, not Serbian), which was acknowledged by the Serbian ethnograph and geograph Yovan Cvijch". As it is seen, this attitude is in complete contradiction with the resolution of the III party conference of UCP from 1924. After the Second world war Aegean Маcedonia remained in Greece, аnd Vardar Macedonia was formed as a separate Македонска republic in the frame of the Social Federative republic Yugoslavia. At that moment, the Bulgarian character of the population has not been recognized in it, yet. It has not been recognized in historical aspect, too.

The Bulgarian character of the language has been denied, as well. If we have in mind the problem with the language, which is one of the factors for the formation of the nationality and the nation, then we shall say that in the past the spoken and literary language of the population in Macedonia is not different from the Bulgarian language, and it represents a part of it. Irrefutable truth is that the most oldest literature is the Bulgarian one.

The literary language (of the Bulgarians from IX - X centuries) was the Bulgarian language, given by Kliment Ohridski. It was known the role of — Kliment and Naum. While Naum taught the population of Preslav on Bulgarian literary, Кliment taught the population of Ohrid. He created the Ohrid School. The spoken Bulgarian language was taken as a base of Ohrid School. The historical sources proved that the literary and the literary language of the Bulgarians from Misia, Тhracia and Macedonia was Bulgarian.

And in the language of the Bulgarians from northern and southern Bulgaria, as well as in the Macedonian national speeches, there are not case-endings, but there is use with the articles of the nouns and of other parts of the speech, which do not present in the Slavic languages. As a constituent part of the national Bulgarian language, the Macedonian speeches are among the closely related to the western Bulgarian dialects. The Macedonian speech is not considered for a separate language, nor in the neighbouiring districts, neither in Маcedonia, from the population, as in the Middle Ages and in the ottoman slavery, as well as later.

They have been described as Bulgarian speeches, as Bulgarian language. The differences, which exist between the Macedonian speeches and the rest of our speeches, are differences, which exist in the languages of many nations. They are dialectic differences in one and the same language. Тhese are the historical facts.

/translation: V. Bogoeva/

2 коментара:

Eemz said...

Nice post.
Look my blog with the same topic

Gadgets For Blogger said...

Hmmm . . . to you know about Egyptian History? is wonderfull story, same like Macedonian

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