Friday, October 27, 2006

| More

Etymology of the name of Macedonia

According to ancient Greek mythology, Macedon - ancient Greek Μακεδών Makedōn, poetic Μακηδών Makēdōn - was the name of the first phylarch (tribal chief) of the Μακεδόνες Makedónes, the part of the Μακεδνοί Makednoí tribe which initially settled western, southern and central Macedonia and founded the kingdom of Macedon. Αccording to Herodotus (Histories 8.47), the Makednoí were in turn a tribe of the Dorians. All these names are probably derived from the Doric adjective μακεδνός makednós (Attic μηκεδανός mēkedanós), meaning "tall". This in turn is derived from the Doric noun μᾶκος mākos (Attic and modern Greek μάκρος mákros and μῆκος mēkos), meaning "length". Both the Macedonians (Makedónes) and their Makednoí tribal ancestors were regarded as tall people, and they are likely to have received their name on account of their height. See also List of traditional Greek place names.
Homer uses the genitive μακεδνῆς, makednēs, to describe a tall poplar tree:

αἱ δ' ἱστοὺς ὑφόωσι καὶ ἠλάκατα στρωφῶσιν
ἥμεναι, οἷά τε φύλλα μακεδνῆς αἰγείροιο
"and others weave webs, or, as they sit, twirl the yarn,
like unto the leaves of a tall poplar tree"
(of the female slaves of the
Phaeacians, Od. 7.105 f.)

It has been suggested that the name Makedónes may mean "highlanders", from a hypothetical (i.e. unattested)
Macedonian bahuvrihi *μακι-κεδόνες *maki-kedónes "of the high earth", with the first constituent μακι- maki-, allegedly meaning "high", and an unattested second part -κεδών -kedōn, being cognate to Attic χθών khthōn, "earth". However the word μᾶκος/μῆκος has only been used to describe tall physical stature in humans, and only in two instances has it been used to mean "height" of inanimate objects: the aforementioned Homeric tall poplar tree and the imaginary wall built around the city of the Birds (in the comedy by the same name by Aristophanes). Furthermore, if the word Makikedōn actually ever existed, it should be paroxytone (Μακικέδων, as in αυτόχθων, etc), not oxytone.

Other puclication about this question
Which Macedonia?


"... Since the end of the Roman times, and for well over 2,000 years, Macedonia was never identified with specific and constant adminstrative or geographical borders. It was only late in the 19th century that the name “Macedonia” was used conventionally to denote the region of three Ottoman vilayets (provinces) namely of Thessaloniki, Monastir (present Bitola) and Uskub (present Skopje). By that time the region had become the bone of contention among various Balkan nationalities. By the dawn of the 20th century, the name “Macedonia” was widely accepted as the geographical denomination for the region which more or less included the above three Ottoman provinces; not the region of the ancient Kingdom of Macedonia. It is worth remembering that at that time the name “Macedonia” had a geographical—not an ethnic nor administrative—connotation.
As a result of the Balkan wars of 1912-13, the region was liberated from Ottoman rule. The initial three allies—Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia—who had fought together to overthrow the Ottomans from their European possessions, shared parts of the region. In the end, Greece acquired the southern part, which included the entire Aegean littoral region, which approximately amounted to 51% of “geographical Macedonia”, and close to 90% of the ancient kingdom. About 38% reverted to Serbia (later Yugoslavia), while Bulgaria was limited to only 9%. A small strip of land west of the Prespa lake was later joined to the Albanian state.
Of the three parts of “geographical Macedonia”, only the Greek part was given, after its liberation, the admininstrative name of Macedonia, namely “Geniki Dioikisi Macedonias" (General Administration of Macedonia). This administrative name, with certain variations and intervals—when it was named “Northern Greece” to include the region of Thrace—has survived to the present, as evidenced by the presence in Thessaloniki of the “Ministry of Macedonia and Thrace”.
The Serbian (Yugoslav) part was initially called “Southern Serbia”, but later, during the inter-war period, it was named Vardarska Banovina (Province of Vardar). Only after the Second World War, did the Yugoslav Communist Party, in re-organizing the Yugoslav state on a federal basis, assign the name of the “People’s Republic of Macedonia” to the former “Vardarska Banovina” (in 1963 it was renamed “Socialist Republic of Macedonia”).
The Bulgarian part never assumed the Macedonian name. During the interwar years it was known as the Pirin district, whereas after the Second World War it was given the administrative name of the Blagoevgrad Okrug (“Blagoevgrad District”).
Conventionally, Greeks and foreign observers, referred to the three regions as “Greek Macedonia”, “Serbian/Yugoslav Macedonia” and “Bulgarian Macedonia”. More or less, the use of these names underlined the fact that by the international treaties which ended the Balkan wars—the Treaty of Bucharest (1913)—and the First World War—the Treaty of Neuilly (1919)—the three Macedonian regions had become integral parts of the respective sovereign states of Greece, Serbia/Yugoslavia and Bulgaria.
Nevertheless, nationalist and irredentist Bulgarians of the interwar period, as well as the Communist International (Comintern), agitating for the unification of the three parts into a single unit as the initial stage for their annexation by Bulgaria, had sought to retain the notion of unity of the land, by describing the respective regions as Egejska Makedonija (“Aegean Macedonia”), Vardarska Makedonija (“Vardar Macedonia”), and Pirinska Makedonija “Pirin Macedonia”). It is interesting to note that, similarly, the nationalist Slav Macedonians of Yugoslavia, adopted the same terminology after the Second World War, which apparently fitted their own perception of Macedonian unification within their Yugoslav federation.
In 1991, as a result of the disintegration of the Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia, its federated unit of the “Socialist Republic of Macedonia”, proclaimed its independence as Republika na Makedonia “Republic of Macedonia”). It is interesting to observe, that, both as a federated and as an independent state it did not adopt the name of the region over which it exercised sovereignity, i.e.“Vardar Makedonija”, but took possession of the name of the entire region of Macedonia, which, as we have seen extended over four countries. This christening was preceeded and followed by extremist nationalist rhetoric and visions for a future unified Macedonian state.
Under the circumstances, the dispute over the name of the new state became an international issue as Greece objected to the monopolization of the name “Macedonia”, particularly since a distinct geographic and administrative province under the name Macedonia existed in Greece.
As a result, the U.N. Security Council, while admitting the new state to U.N. membership (S.C. Decision 817/1993), did so under the provisional name of“Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, (FYROM) pending settlement of the difference that had arisen over the name of the state. The issue of the name is still pending, despite the fact that Athens and Skopje have settled most outstanding differences—with the exception of the name—by signing in September 1995 an Interim Accord under the aegis of the United States.
Thus, FYROM continues to be the official—though provisional—name used by international organisations and many countries which recognized the new state by that name. In a extensive interview to a well-known Greek Sunday newspaper (To Vima) President of FYROM Kiro Gligorov said: “Macedonia is not only Greek. It is Greek as well... We do not wish to monopolise the name of Macedonia... In terms of geography the biggest part of Macedonia belongs to Greece. It is part of your state. This is a fact”. Such a declaration justifies Greek objections and would certainly facilitate a final solution of the name issue were it repeated in front of the U.N. assembly..."
The Name of Macedonia
Diferent view
At the time of the Bulgarian renaissance of the 19th century, and during the national liberation struggles, the Bulgarians, used regional names, in addition to their ethnic Bulgarian name, to identify themselves. Thus the name Makedonc(ts)i was used to differentiate the Bulgarians of Macedonia from the Dunavtsi, Trakiitsi etc. The name Makedonc(ts)I gained more prominence after the establishment of the Bulgarian state (1878) and during the Bulgarian armed fighting in Macedonia in the last decade of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th. It was used to describe the Bulgarians of Macedonia and distinguish them from those of the Bulgarian Principality. The term is still being used in this sense by Bulgarian Macedonians in Bulgaria and the diaspora.

0 коментара:

Post a Comment

28.03.2006-2009 © Copyright by HISTORY OF MACEDONIA, ИСТОРИЯ НА МАКЕДОНИЯ, MACEDONIA HISTORY  |  Template by Blogspot tutorial