Saturday, November 11, 2006

0 Tsar Samuel

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Tsar Samuel
(10 s.-1114)

From: The Encyclopedia of World History


Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria

He built up another great Bulgarian Empire, with its capital at Ochrid, extending from the Adriatic to the Black Sea and from the Danube to the Peloponnesus. In 981 he defeated Basil near Sofia.

From Encyclopedia "Britannica":

Britannica Concise
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died Oct. 6, 1014

Tsar of Western Bulgaria (980–1014).
Ruling originally in Macedonia, he conquered Serbia, northern Bulgaria, Albania, and northern Greece. He revived the Bulgarian patriarchate and in the 980s defeated Basil II. However, his struggle with the Byzantines continued until 1014, when Basil defeated Samuel's army at the Battle of Belasitsa. At Basil's order, the 15,000 Bulgarian prisoners were blinded and then returned to Samuel, who is said to have died of shock.


b. circa 938?, d. 6 October 1014, #8239Pedigree

Tsar Samuil (997 - 1014) Also called Samuil. The name, Cometopuli, means "Sons of the Count," for their father, Count Nicholas. Samuil, Tsar of Bulgaria was born circa 938?. He was the son of Nikola Kumet, Count and Rhipsime Bagratuni.2,3,4 He married Agatha Khrysilaina, daughter of John Khrysilios, Lord of Durazzo, circa 970.5,1 He rebelled in Western Bulgaria (Macedonia) along with his three brothers in 976.3,6 He was not a member of a royal family, but nonetheless proved born to rule.2 Tsar of Western Bulgaria (Macedonia) between 976 and 1014. He ambushed the imperial army of Emperor Basil II almost destroyed it to a man, and witnessed the flight of Emperor Basil II who fled, leaving behind his treasure hoard and a supply train, on 17 August 986 in Troyanovi Vrata. He became sole ruler of Bulgaria in 987.3,6 He proclaimed himself Tsar in 997.6 Tsar of Bulgaria between 997 and 1014.7 He conquered Diocleia, Trebinje and Zahumlje, and made Bosnia and Raska (Serbia) vassals of Bulgaria.5 He died on 6 October 1014 in Prilep, Macedonia. Basil II of Byzanitum had been a long-time rival. At long last, the tides of war had turned in favor of Basil, and he sent a defeated Bulgarian army of 15,000 men back to Samuel, blind. When Samuel saw the long line of mutilated soldiers return home, it is said he died on the spot of shock.8
Children of Samuil, Tsar of Bulgaria and Agatha Khrysilaina:
Gavril Radomir, Tsar of Bulgaria+ b. c 970, d. 1015 Katun Kometopoulos+ b. c 980, d. 6 Oct 1014;She may, or may not, have been Tsar Samuel's daughter.
Child of Samuil, Tsar of Bulgaria:
Teodora Kosara Kometopoulos+ b. c 982?

From: 1911 edition of Encyclopedia Brittanica:

"BASIL II. (c. 958-1025), known as Bilgaroktonos (slayer of Bulgarians), ..... The power of Bulgaria was restored by the Tsar Samuel, in whom Basil found a worthy foe. The emperors first efforts against him were unsuccessful (98I),and the war was not resumed till 996, Samuel in the meantime extending his rule along the Adriatic coast and imposing his lordship on Servia. Eastern Bulgaria was finally recovered in boo; but the war continued with varying successes till 1014, when the Bulgarian army suffered an overwhelming defeat."

"Samuel of Bulgaria 976–1014.

Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria. He built up another great Bulgarian Empire, with its capital at Ochrid, extending from the Adriatic to the Black Sea and from the Danube to Central Greece. In 981 he defeated Basil near Sofia"
..."The great Bulgarian campaigns of Basil II. The great Bulgarian campaigns. In 996 Basil defeated Samuel on the Spercheios River and reconquered Greece. In 1002 he overran Macedonia. Samuel recovered, however, reconquered Macedonia, and sacked Adrianople (1003). In 1007 Basil subdued Macedonia again and after years of indecisive conflict annihilated the Bulgarian army at Belasitsa (1014). He sent several thousand blinded soldiers back to Samuel, who died of the shock. The Bulgarians finally submitted (1018), but were left an autocephalous church at Ochrid. Many of the Bulgarian noble families settled in Constantinople and merged with the Greek and Armenian aristocracy"...

From: Encarta, History of Bulgaria

"The Russians were compelled to withdraw from Bulgaria in 972, and the eastern part of the country was annexed to the Byzantine Empire. Samuel, the son of a Bulgarian provincial governor, became ruler of western Bulgaria in 976. Samuel’s armies were annihilated in 1014 by the Byzantine Emperor Basil II, who incorporated the short-lived state into his empire in 1018"...

From: The Columbia Encyclopedia 2001 edition
"Basil II. c.958–1025, Byzantine emperor (976–1025), surnamed Bulgaroktonos [Bulgar slayer]".

From:Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization:

"...Tsars of Western Bulgaria:

SAMUEL (976-1014)
Gabriel Radomir (1014-1015)
John Vladislav (1015-1018

BATTLE OF CLEIDON PASS: Destruction of Bulgarian Army and Death of Tsar Samuel

From: Constantinopol site


From: Kyriazis, Constantine D. Eternal Greece. Translated by Harry T. Hionides. A Chat Publication.]

"...977/986 A.D. Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria occupies Macedonia and Thessaloniki and advances down to the Peloponnese. The Byzantines and Basil are defeated at TrajanÍs Gate .."

From: Encyclopedia Answers

" Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria (c. 958 - October 6, 1014), also sometimes referred as Samuel or Samoil, was Tsar of Bulgaria between 997 and 1014 (co-rule with Roman [1]. between 976 and 997). A minority of historians, mainly from the Republic of Macedonia and other former parts of Yugoslavia, views his ethnicity as Macedonian and his empire as a "Slavic Empire", due to some unique distinctions from his predecessors of the First Bulgarian Empire.
Although ultimately unsuccessful in saving his country's independence from the incursions of Emperor Basil II of the Byzantine Empire, Samuil resisted him for decades and is the only man to ever defeat Basil II in battle.
Although he wasn't crowned as Tsar until 997, Samuil's reign actually dates from 976, when his predecessor Tsar Roman bestowed the power of the state, if not the crown, upon him. He restored the Bulgarian Patriarchate, previously abolished by Emperor John I Tzimisces. Already known as a successful general, Samuil now extended Bulgarian territory in all directions. Soon, the kingdom reigned supreme over virtually the entire Balkans, with only parts of Greece and Thrace remaining under Byzantine control. In 986, Samuil drove Basil II's army from the field at Trayanovi Vrata, and the emperor (barely surviving the heavy defeat in Troyanovi Vrata) soon turned to the east for new conquests. His victory prompted Pope Gregory V to recognize him as Tsar, and he was crowned in Rome in 997.
After this victory Samuil was able to expand without many obstacles since a civil war erupted in the Byzantine Empire. Only with the help of Varangian Guard sent from his ally Vladimir the Great, was Basil able to subdue the rebellious nobility. After emerging victorious against the rebels he was forced to lead a campaign against the Arabs in Syria. Finally he was able to face Samuil.

Samuil's army conquering Thessaloniki and killing its governor
In 1002, a full-scale war broke out. By this time, Basil's army was stronger. The emperor was determined to conquer Bulgaria once and for all. He moved much of the battle-seasoned imperial war potential from the Eastern campaigns against the Arabs, and Samuil was forced to retreat into his country's heartland. Still, by harassing the powerful Byzantine army, Samuil hoped to force Basil to the peace table. For a dozen years, his tactics maintained Bulgarian independence and even kept Basil away from the main Bulgarian cities, including the capital of Ohrid.
However, on July 29, 1014 at Kleidion (or Belasitsa) in Pirin Macedonia, Basil II was able to corner the main Bulgarian army and force a battle while Samuil was away. He won a crushing victory and blinded 14,000 prisoners, leaving one man in every hundred with the sight in one eye to lead his comrades home. The sight of this atrocious act was too much even for Samuil, who blamed himself for the defeat and died less than three months later, on October 6.
The independent Bulgarian kingdom survived him by less than four years, and didn't throw off Byzantine rule until 1185. Vanquishing Samuil’s empire, the Byzantines were able to rule the entire Balkan Peninsula for the first time after the Slavic migration in the 6th-7th century.


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