Friday, September 07, 2007

3 The revolt of Ohrid - 1913

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The Revolt of Ohrid - 1913

After Serbia and Greece have visualized their faces of „ally”, they got to undersigning the Peace of Bucharest on July 28 (August 10) 1913. It was signed with the mediation of Austro-Hungary and Russia, which did not pay attention to the atrocity of the Serbs in the suppression of the Revolt of Tikvesh, allowing that 9/10 of Macedonia to be occupied by Serbia and Greece. Without consideration of the ethnical character in the region (the population in Macedonia being Bulgarian in its majority - 1 150 000 persons in 1911), the World Powers were only consulting their own interests. So they assisted the imposing of a new slavery over the Bulgarians in Macedonia, heavier than the Turkish one. New hard times came for the Bulgarian national spirit in Macedonia. Its unique defender and supporter remained VMORO - the Internal Macedonian-Odrin Organization (Odrin, or Edirne, or Adrianople – capital of Thrace).
Still in April 1913, observing the atrocity of Serbs and Greeks over the local Bulgarian population they began restoration of the organizational network in the areas of Ohrid, Struga and Debar, and preparation for the fight with the new oppressors. The messenger network was restored. It was clear that the unique way to liberate Macedonia from Serbian and Greek oppression was by arms. In the same month began negotiations with the Albanian revolutionaries. The temporary Albanian government proposed to VMORO a common revolt to be organized and risen. The negotiations from the part of the Organization had to be carried by T, Pavlov and P. Chaulev. The Bulgarian government believed however, that it would not come to a war with Serbia, so both delegates did not attend the negotiations. This time, as many times before, the government in Sofia was wrong. The war came. So in June 1913 they sent in Tirana Yane Sandanski for negotiations with the Albanians. He gave an interview for the newspaper „Secolo” where he said that he came to agreement with the Albanians and that from the Bulgarian side there would be organizing bands and assaults.

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Serbian and Greek governments found out that and sent their delegations in Albania. The Serbs promised to remise to the Albanians Debar and Dyakovo, and the Greeks – Korcha and Argirocastro, if the Albanians cancel the Union with VMORO. The Albanians accepted. After the end of the Inter-allies war, the Albanians were disappointed both by Serbs and Greeks.
From 12 to 17 August 1913 new negotiations were carried out in Elbassan between VMORO and the Albanian revolutionary committees leaded by Safadin Pustinia. An agreement is made: VMORO to prepare and lead the revolt. P. Chaulev, M. Matov, P. Hristov get authority to lead the Albanian bands in Debar – Gostivar - Kichevo. Decision was taken the revolt to raise in October 1913. Tthe bands of P. Chaulev, P. Hristov, Anton Shibakov, Nestor Georgiev should act in the areas of Ohrid, Struga and Bitolya, and those of Safadin Pustinia, Hr. Atanasov and Riza bey - in Debar.
There was no serious preparation, because the revolt rose earlier. On September 7 the Serbian authorities found and surrounded in the village of Episcopia the band of Selim Aga - a standard bearer from Low-Debar. To their aid came the militia of the village, then the battle with the Serbs began. It was stabbed in the back by the coming Serbian relief. The whole Debar revolted. Part of Serbian officials and administration chased, and another part - killed. On 8 September Shakir Bey announced to P. Chaulev, that the revolt had risen. Chaulev ordered to revolt also in the areas of Ohrid and Struga. Battles began between the local bands of the Organization and the Serbian army. So the revolt outflanked Debar, the areas of Ohrid and Struga.
On 9 September 1913 the united Bulgarian and Albanian bands liberated Debar. Revolutionary authority was installed in the city. Temporary government was elected. Members were Safadin Pustinia, Hr. Atanasov, Iv. Boychev and Riza Bey. In the areas of Ohrid and Struga the bands of P. Chaulev, M. Matov, Ан.Shibakov, Н. Georgiev chased the Serbian army. They captured the forth Serbian infantry regiment together with the commander Spas Miloevich. In Ohrid the rebels captured several Serbian cannons. In the morning of 12 September the bands of P. Chaulev and P. Hristov entered Ohrid. The city was decorated with Bulgarian flags. Serbian labels from the shops and streets (their names) were taken down. Ceremonial meeting was made. Temporary Bulgarian government was formed. Members were Lev Ognenov, Iv. Grupchev, Lev Kackov, P. Hristov, P. Filev. In Struga and the surrounding villages a temporary Bulgarian government was also formed. Then came the moment where the rebels made a serious mistake. Instead of pursuing the flying „glorious” Serbian army, retreating towards Ressen, Bitolya and Kichevo, the rebels took defensive tactics. They took possession of the villages Petrino and Bukovo, and prepared for a defense.
The revolt of the Bulgarians provoked scare among Serbian leaders. On 11 September the Serbian King gave a decree for mobilization. The Serbia press wrote that the revolt was supported by Bulgaria. Yane Sandanski, Hr. Chernio Peev and other voivodes sent by Bulgaria took part. The Serbian plenipotentiary minister in Rome Dukic also accused Bulgaria. The Bulgarian plenipotentiary minister in Rome Dimitar Rizov rejected the accusations as unsustainable. In the article „The revolt in Macedonia” of 17 September the English newspaper „Daily Telegraph” said that this was a revolution of the Bulgarian peasant. The Serbian government mobilized a hundred thousand additional army for the suppression of the revolt. V. Trubic was said by telegram to direct from Prilep towards Kichevo, in order to defend it. This was the direction also of the 19th infantery regiment of the Serbian army disorderly flying from Ohrid. Trubic told the other voivodes of the bands of „The Black arm” Yovan the Tall, Dako Stoyanovic, Mihailo Yosifovic, Boshko Viryanetz to go towards Kichevo.
On 15 September thousands of armed rebels gathered in Ohrid. Military council was convoked. P. Chaulev was elected chief commander of the revolutionary forces. Decision was taken to set off for Bitolya and Kichevo.
It was however too late, the favorable moment was lost, the Serbian army was regrouped. At that time the Greek army came to support their ally Serbia and occupied the village Podgradetz near to Ohrid. From the headquarters of the revolt was issued an ultimatum to the Greeks to withdraw their troops or they would be attacked. They fulfilled the ultimatum but they gained two days in dragging on. For those two days of Serbian relief the Serbs managed to reach to Bitolya. P. Chaulev ordered the liberation of Kichevo first. On their way to Kichevo the rebels were intercepted by the Serbian army at the passage Petrino. On 17 and 18 September fierce battles were waged between Bulgarian rebels and the Serbian army. The brave rebels repulsed four times the attack of the Serbs. They were leaded by An. Shibakov and N. Georgiev. At this time, however, the Albanian squads in the lead of Mehmed Ali drew off through the passage Buhovo and left the battle-field. The Serbs took advantage and attacked the left flank of the rebels, so they began to retreat to the village Galichica. In two-day battles many victims were given of both sides.
At the same time the band of P. Chaulev led severe battles near the village Ivanitza. They defeated the Serbs and on 17 September liberated Kichevo. On the next day (18 September) the Serbian artillery arrived and the rebels left the town.
On 18 and 19 September the bands of An. Shibakov and N. Georgiev led heavy battles at the mountain Golak. Their situation became more severe because they were attacked in the back by the Greek army. On 19 September the Serbian army burned down the villages surrounding Ohrid and entered the city. On 20 October several bands guarded the passage „Golo Bardo”. The rebels retreated to Albania through this passage. The bands in Debar were disbanded and Albanian rebels with their families retreated to Albania. P. Chaulev ordered the breakup of the bands. The last battle was led at the village Ilino, the region of Ressen. The voivodes N. Georgiev, An. Shibakov, Hr. Atanasov and P. Chaulev with their bands also retreated to Albania in order to regroup and to turn back later continuing the revolt.
On 24 September 1913 P. Chaulev sent a letter to the Bulgarian representative in Tirana Krastio Stanchev. It said that Chaulev was in Elbassan and intended to turn back with his band of about 100 persons in Macedonia to begin again the military operations, but this time in the whole Macedonia. He claimed for a financial support but did not receive any, so the revolt ended gradually.
In the same time the Serbian army began operation for eradication of the Bulgarian national spirit by any possible means. Shortly, not only the regions in revolt but also the entire Macedonia transformed in a wilderness of blood. The Serbian army supported by the bands of „The Black arm” slaughtered one and all, everybody caring Bulgarian awareness, regardless of gender and age. In the region of Ohrid 30 villages were burned to the ground. In the region between Ohrid – Debar - Gostivar the number of burned villages was about 180. With the very entering the town, the Serbs hung without charge or trial 40 men of note for the reason that they were public-spirited Bulgarians. In the villages around the town the problem with the Bulgarian national spirit was solved in an easier way. In every village the population were gathered in the square and shot by machine-gun. In the village Velgoshta men who were not escaped were lined up and 1 of each 5 was shot (12 persons total). We realize by the Carnegie’s inquiry that in the beginning of October 1913 in Ohrid were killed 3 priests, 5 teachers, about 150 Bulgarian rural and townspeople, also 500 more Albanian and Turkish people. Some of the quarters of the town were destroyed; there were the houses of P. Chaulev, M. Matov and their families. Dozens of people, 150 former teachers, all priests and 50 young men were put into prison. 46 Bulgarian notables and 11 priests were subjected to cruel tortures. After that, they were transferred in Bitolya and were sentenced to 10 years penal servitude. 200 persons were known to be killed in and around Ohrid. Their number is obviously much higher.
It was a big tragedy for the Bulgarians in Debar. Most of the town there was destroyed by the Serbian army. Plundered and devastated were the villages: Krivitzi, Kukay, Krutbel, Hame, Piyanetz, Kalabuchitz, Karchishta, Nosesti, Mogelari, Popinovska, Kovachitza, Alayblia, Koinik, Fermach, Maistore, Blatza, Spas, Selokuki, Kainari, Bomovo, Mileshte, Golo Bardo, Klenie, Borovo, Steblovo, Chinovetz, Setishta, Okshun, Tarnovo, Zabzun, Otishoni, Malko Ostreni, Goliamo Ostreni, Trebishte, Drepishta, Leshnicheni, Smochani, Drumkol, Yablanitza, Jernitza, Boletin, Rostushta, Skudrina, Odjemovtzi, Tarnishta, Varbeni, Yaniche, Tripaj, Peshkopia, Suhi dol, Robdin, Zagrad, Peryana, Meloni, Deloshetza and many others unknown villages. In the defense of Debar perished 300 rebels. Thousands of men and women were killed after the capturing of the town by the Serbian army. Women were burned alive, and men were shot with machine-guns. The names of those thousands martyrs are not known. Kiril Parlichev gives the names of only 246 of them and the names of 1123 people, whose houses were burned. The atrocity the Serbian army showed the manner of a future behavior if an attempt for demonstration of Bulgarian self-consciousness would be done.
The region of Kochevo was neither omitted by the atrocity. In Kichevo 100 Bulgarian and Albanian notables were killed. From the village Lajne 27 rich Turks were kidnapped and later slaughtered all of them in the village Jitoishte. 30 000 Bulgarians and Albanians left to Albania in order to save themselves.
The newspaper „Rabotnicheski vestnik (Labor newspaper)” described better the brutal manner the revolt was crushed: „Serbia attained pacification of the revolted regions by killing and slaughtering the entire population in these regions and transformed them into ashes.” In Serbia the social-democratic newspaper „Rabotnichke novini” published a letter by a young soldier participant in the massacre of the local population. We see from this letter that the village Lyuma, region Debar did not exist anymore; we see how the army gathered per 40 - 50 people and slaughtered them, plundering after that the village. The most Serbian newspapers tried to stifle the public opinion and even wrote about the atrocity of the Bulgarian and Albanian bands over „the local Serbian population”. They all knew, however, that before the beginning of 1913 there was no Serbian population in Macedonia. In that year began the settlement, at first of the north and western regions, with Serbian population ready to serve the cause of the Great-Serbian chauvinism.
The command-in-chief of the Serbian army also tried to cover the inhuman atrocity they had revealed. They ordered for this purpose to the regional governors in Bitolya and Debar to establish the caused damages over „the local Serbian population”. It was ordered to the bands of „The Black arm” to slaughter and violate in the entire Vardar Macedonia. This „brave” conduct of the Serbs was demonstrated only when they had the helpless rural people without arms in front of them, but not when they had an armed band or, more dreadful, a whole army to fight with.
On 9 November 1913, 8 Bulgarian persons of note were taken out from the prison of Bitolya and killed in the outskirts of the city. In the village Lazaro were violated and then killed 7 women. In Patrik, region Velesh, 16 Bulgarians were forced to enter the house of Done Domozetov. They were first са beaten, and then killed, and the house burned. Filip Mitrov managed to escape from the fire and told about the events giving as example also a precise list of the victims of the Serbian hate to the Bulgarian national spirit. These were: Pane and Tode Postolovi, Efrem Mitrev and his sons Georgi and Dimitar Efremovi, Sime Postorov, File Yovchev, Kotze Panev, Mancho Gelev, Yorde Manev, Hristo Yanev, Guka Kameva, Ylio Stoyanov, Kotze Stoyanov, Mite Kotzev and Stoyan Milev. In the village Gradetz 60 - 70 people were arrested, then taken out of the village and slaghtered before the eyes of their wives. Later the village was fired. 300 people left it and went to Bulgaria, only 9 families of them reached Kyustendil. The others were killed in their way. In the village Lubnitza the Serbs requested money from the wife of Todor Kamchev, but she refused because she had no money. Enraged, the Serbian soldiers pierced her four-year old child. That was not enough for the ferocious Serbian army. In the site where there was no reason for intervention, the Serbs used ruse in the sole purpose to punish the hateful to them Bulgarian.
On 9 November 1913 in the Bulgarian villages in the region of Tikvesh came serbophile Serbian gendarmes, disguised as members of Bulgarian revolutionary bands. In the name of VMORO they began looking for arms. The local peasants were misled and gave several guns to the false revolutionists. The result was the arrest of 90 people from the villages who were taken off in Skopie. Here, they were put to military trial. In all villages of region Tikvesh began terror and violence over the local Bulgarian population. The same happened also in other parts of Macedonia – the regions of Kumanovo, Kochan, Radovish. Hundreds eminent Bulgarians were killed. In Kichevo 150 people were beaten in public. As a result 17 of them died. In October 1913 in the village Planisha, region Kichevo, 46 people were killed, and 5 houses burned. This was also the fate of other 40 Bulgarians from the village Giavoto. Their bodies were thrown in the well-pits of the village. Through mass murders, terror, plunders in whole Vardar Macedonia, the Serbian authorities tried to stifle the fight of the Bulgarian population for national and political unification.
In order to cover the atrocity of his subjects and hidden the truth from the Great forces, the Serbian king issued on 21 September 1913 severe ordinances for governing „South Serbia”. Their unique aim was to legalize the atrocity and the murders of the Serbian army. This was the new consecutive attempt without success to kill the Bulgarian spirit in Vardar Macedonia. As a result of these “measures” for suppression of the revolt, thousands Bulgarians left their homes and places and settled in the free part of their motherland Bulgaria. In this occasion, in October the newspaper „Izgrev” wrote that Macedonia was set free of its intellectuals and people.
On 22 October the Russian newspaper „ Novoe vremya” called the attention to the successive act of forcible conversion to Serbs of the Bulgarian population in Macedonia. They were forced to change the endings of their family names from –ov, -ev, -ski, to –ić like the endings of the Serbian family names. The German newspaper „Deutsche Folkeblatt” wrote that the Bulgarian teachers, priests and intellectuals left in large number Vardar Macedonia. There, it was forbidden to speak in their mother tongue - Bulgarian, and if someone defined himself as Bulgarian, he would be killed on the spot. The Belgian newspaper „Expesso” also wrote about the anti-Bulgarian and anti-human policy of the Great-Serbian chauvinists. It was said that the Serbs and Greeks chased more Bulgarians and suppressed Bulgarian national spirit in Macedonia more than that was done by the Turks in the Ottomans time. The atrocity of Serbs and Greeks in Macedonia found a rather great response in the European press, unfortunately the European politician remained cold to it and did not intervene and save the Bulgarian nationality in Macedonia.
The revolt of Ohrid raised only a month after the Peace of Bucharest and had a duration of about 2 months. This was a successive attempt for the Bulgarians of Macedonia to reject the Serbian and Greek oppression. Unfortunately, they were supported neither by Bulgaria, nor by the Great forces. Once again VMORO did not choose the most favorable moment for the revolt. It should happen in the beginning of World War I and should embrace the entire Macedonia. Then, it could provoke Bulgarian intervention too, with possible successful issue. Nevertheless, the revolt has an important historical and political significance. It has proved that Macedonia is populated of Bulgarians, and not of Serbs, as Serbia claims. The Serbs try to oppose the different nationalities in Macedonia against each other, but the participation of Turks and Albanians in the revolt has shown that the Serbian politics has no success. This revolt demonstrated also to the Bulgarians within the borders of free Bulgaria that the Macedonian brothers cannot reject alone the Serbian oppression. This should give hint to us, to our scientists, to our intellectuals for the following: let us begin defending the national causes of the Bulgarian people.

References:

1. Gotzev, D. Fights for National Liberation in Macedonia 1912-1915.

2. Macedonia. History and Political Fate (1912-1941). Vol. II., Sofia, 1998.

3 коментара:

Георги Станков said...

Поздрав на екипа на "История на Македония"!
Благодаря за предложението моят блог "Черничево" да влезе в "българската блог търсачка". Ще се радвам това да стане.
Също така, съгласен съм, че трябва да се провят повече изследвания за родовете в Черничево, аз вече имам родословно дърво на моя род, а планирам да открия сведения и за други фамилии.
Всъчко, което съм събрал за Черничево, накратко е поместено в българската версия на Уикипедия.
Може бе ще ви е интересно да научите, че в Черничево преди повече от век е имало комитет на ТМОРО ;)
Подробности - в блога ми, но по-нататък :)

Kos said...

Dear Greek compatriots
who read this blog.

We fed up with Skopjeans. Our country is under attack.

If you respect Greece's history, please:

1. Don't visit FYROM (Skopje)
2. Don't buy products from FYROM
3. Don't give a Euro to FYROM
4. Don't choose to study in FYROM

Thank you
Kostas

Anonymoussaid...

Вие сте едни големи кукавици. 2014 наскоро ќе дојде

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